Statistical Inference

  • Reinert G. Statistical Theory. 2009 [PDF
  • Michael W. Trosset. An Introduction to Statistical Inference and Its Applications. 2006 [PDF]
  • Colquhoun D. 2014 An investigation of the false discovery rate and the misinterpretation of p-values. R. Soc. open sci. 1: 140216. [PDF]
  • Nuzzo R. 2014. Scientific method: Statistical errors. Nature 606(7487) 150-152 [PDF]
  • S N Goodman and R Royall. Evidence and scientific research. Am J Public Health. 1988; 78(12): 1568–1574.  [PDF]
  • Krantz DH. The Null Hypothesis Testing Controversy in Psychology. 1999 44(448) 1372-1381 [PDF]
  • Cohen J. The Earth is round (<0.05).  American Psychologist. 1994 49 (12) 997-1003 [PDF]
  • Steven N. Goodman, Toward Evidence-Based Medical Statistics. 1: The P Value Fallacy. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:995-1004 [PDF]
  • Steven N. Goodman, A Dirty Dozen: Twelve P-Value Misconceptions. Sem Hem. 2008 4(3) 135-140

A series of "Tutorials in Biostatistics" published in Statistics in Medicine

  • Julious SA. Sample sizes for clinical trials with normal data. Statistics in medicine. 2004;23(12):1921-86.
  • Goldstein H, Browne W, Rasbash J. Multilevel modelling of medical data. Statistics in medicine. 2002;21(21):3291-315. [PDF]
  • Kraemer H. Events per person-time (incidence rate): A misleading statistic? Statistics in medicine. 2009;(December 2008):1028-1039.
  • Houwelingen HC, Arends LR, Stijnen T. Advanced methods in meta-analysis: multivariate approach and meta-regression. Statistics in Medicine. 2002;624(June 2001):589-624.
  • Lindsey JC, Ryan LM. Methods for interval-censored data. Statistics in medicine. 1998;17(2):219-38. .
  • Park T, Lee Y. Covariance models for nested repeated measures data: analysis of ovarian steroid secretion data. Statistics in medicine. 2002;164(January 2001):143-164.
  • Senn S, Stevens L, Chaturvedi N. Repeated measures in clinical trials: simple strategies for analysis using summary measures. Statistics in medicine. 2000;(January 1998):861-877.
  • Olson J, Witte J, Elston R. Genetic mapping of complex traits. Statistics in medicine. 1999;2981(June 1998):2961-2981.[PDF]
  • Sullivan LM, Massaro JM, D'Agostino RB. Presentation of multivariate data for clinical use: The Framingham Study risk score functions. Statistics in medicine. 2004;23(10):1631-60. [PDF]
  • Burton P, Gurrin L, Sly P. Extending the simple linear regression model to account for correlated responses: An introduction to generalized estimating equations and multi-level mixed modelling. Statistics in Medicine. 1998;17(11):1261-1291.
  • Chuang-Stein C, Agresti A. A review of tests for detecting a monotone dose–response relationship with ordinal response data. Statistics in Medicine. 1997;16(22):2599-2618.
  • Carlin JB, Wolfe R, Coffey C, Patton GC. Analysis of binary outcomes in longitudinal studies using weighted estimating equations and discrete-time survival methods: prevalence and incidence of smoking in an adolescent cohort. Statistics in Medicine. 1999;18(19):2655-2679.
  • Chmura Kraemer H, Periyakoil VS, Noda A. Kappa coefficients in medical research. Statistics in medicine. 2002;21(14):2109-29. [PDF]
  • Agresti A, Hartzel J. Strategies for comparing treatments on a binary response with multi-centre data. Statistics in medicine. 2000;(June 1999):1115-1139.
  • Normand S. Meta-analysis: formulating, evaluating, combining, and reporting. Statistics in Medicine. 1999;19(5):759-61.
  • Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB. Multivariable Prognostic Models: Issues in Developing Models, Evaluating Assumptions and Adequacy, and Measuring and Reducing Errors. Statistics in Medicine. 1996;15(4):361-387. [PDF]
  • Cnaan A, Laird N, Slasor P. Using the general linear mixed model to analyse unbalanced repeated measures and longitudinal data. Statistics in Medicine. 1997;16. [PDF]
  • Bull K, Spiegelhalter DJ. Survival Analysis in Observational Studies. Statistics in Medicine.1997;16(9):1041-1074. [PDF]
  • Sullivan LM, Dukes KA, Losina E. An introduction to hierarchical linear modelling. Statistics in medicine. 1999;18(7):855-88.[PDF]
  • Blume JD. Likelihood methods for measuring statistical evidence. Statistics in medicine. 2002;21(17):2563-99. [PDF].
  • Chao A, Tsay PK, Lin S, Shau W, Chao D. The applications of capture-recapture models to epidemiological data. Statistics in Medicine. 2001;3157(February 2000):3123-3157.[PDF]
  • Goldstein H. longitudinal data analysis (repeated measures) in clinical trials. Statistics in medicine. 2000;19(13):1821. Available at:
  • Hogan JW, Roy J, Korkontzelou C. Handling drop-out in longitudinal studies. Statistics in medicine. 2004;23(9):1455-97. [PDF]
  • Fayers PM, Ashby D, Parmar MK. Bayesian data monitoring in clinical trials. Statistics in medicine. 1997;16(12):1413-30. Available at:
  • Heather J Whitaker, C Paddy Farrington, Bart Spiessens, Patrick Musonda (2006)  Tutorial in biostatistics: the self-controlled case series method. Statistics in medicine 25 (10) p. 1768-97[PDF]

A series of tutorials in biostatistics published in British Medical Journal (BMJ)

Introduction - Data Types

  • Altman D, Bland J. Statistics notes: units of analysisBritish Medical Journal. 1997;314(June) [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Variables and ParametersBMJ. 2005:1998-1998.[PDF]
  • Altman D, Bland J. Presentation of numerical dataBMJ: British Medical Journal. 1996;312:1996-1996.[PDF]
  • Bland J, Altman D. Statistics notes: transforming dataBritish Medical Journal. 1996;312:1996-1996. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. LogarithmsBMJ. 1996;312(March):16000-16000.[PDF]
  • Bland J, Altman D. Statistics notes: validating scales and indexesBritish Medical Journal. 2002;324(March):606-607. [PDF]
  • Altman D. Statistics and ethics in medical research: study designBritish Medical Journal. 1980;281:6-8. [PDF]

Hypothesis testing

  • D G Altman. Statistics and ethics in medical research: V--Analysing data. Br Med J. 1980 November 29; 281(6253): 1473–1475. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. the normal distributionBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1995;310(6975):298.[PDF]
  • Altman D, Bland J. Detecting skewness from summary informationBritish Medical Journal. 1996;313 (November):1996-1996. [PDF]
  • D. G. Altman, J. M. Bland. Quartiles, quintiles, centiles, and other quantiles. BMJ. 1994 October 15; 309(6960): 996. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Standard deviations and standard errorsBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2005;331(7521):903. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. One and two sided tests of significanceBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1994;309(6949):248. [PDF]
  • Altman D, Bland J. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absenceBritish Medical Journal. 1995;311:1994-1994.[PDF]
  • Gardner M, Altman D. Confidence intervals rather than P values: estimation rather than hypothesis testingBritish Medical Journal. 1986;292:746-750. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Multiple significance tests: the Bonferroni methodBMJ. 1995;310(January):1995-1995 [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Transformations, means, and confidence intervalsBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1996;312(7038):1079. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. The use of transformation when comparing two meansBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1996;312(7039):1153. [PDF]
  • J. M. Bland, S. M. Kerry. Statistics notes. Weighted comparison of means. BMJ. 1998 January 10; 316(7125): 129. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Bayesians and frequentistsBMJ. 1998;317(October):1998-1998.[PDF]

Regression, Correlation and Analysis of Variance

  • Altman DG, Gardner MJ. Calculating confidence intervals for regression and correlationBritish medical journal (Clinical research ed.). 1988;296(6631):1238-42. [PDF]
  • Altman D, Bland J. Generalisation and extrapolationBMJ. British medical journal. 1998;317:401-410. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Comparing several groups using analysis of variance. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1996;312(7044):1472-3. [PDF]
  • Altman D, Matthews J. Interaction 1: heterogeneity of effectsBMJ: British Medical Journal. 1996;313(August):318771-318771. [PDF]
  • Matthews J, Altman D. Statistics Notes: Interaction 2: compare effect sizes not P valuesBritish Medical Journal. 1996;313(September):1996-1996. [PDF]
  • Matthews JN, Altman DG. Interaction 3: How to examine heterogeneityBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1996;313(7061):862. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Interaction revisited: the difference between two estimatesBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2003;326(7382):219.[PDF]

Binary and survival Data

  • Bland J, Altman D. Statistics notes: Cronbach's alphaBritish Medical Journal. 1997:570-572. [PDF]
  • Bland J, Altman D. Statistics notes: the odds ratioBritish Medical Journal. 2000;16(11-12):1114-1115. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Royston P. The cost of dichotomising continuous variablesBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2006;332(7549):1080. [PDF]
  • Altman D, Bland J. Statistics Notes: Time to event (survival) dataBritish Medical Journal. 1998;317(August). [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Survival probabilities (the Kaplan-Meier method). BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1998;317(7172):1572. [PDF].
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. The logrank testBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2004;328(7447):1073. [PDF]

Diagnostic Tests

  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests. 1: Sensitivity and specificityBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1994;308(6943):1552. [PDF]
  • Altman D, Bland J. Diagnostic tests 2: Predictive valuesBMJ: British Medical Journal. 1994; 309(July): 16104-16104. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests 3: receiver operating characteristic plots. 1994;309(July):1994-1994.[PDF]
  • Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratiosBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2004;329(7458):168-9. [PDF]

Measurement Error and Repeated Measurements

  • J N Matthews, D G Altman, M J Campbell, P Royston. Analysis of serial measurements in medical researchBMJ. 1990 January 27; 300(6719): 230–235.[PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations:Part 1-correlation within subjectsBMJ. 1995;310(February):1995-1995.[PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistics Notes Calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations : Part 2-correlation between subjectsBMJ. 1995;310(March):1995-1995. [PDF]
  • Andrew J, Douglas G. Analysing controlled trials with baseline and follow up measurementsBritish Medical Journal. 2001;323(November):1123-1124. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement error and correlation coefficientsBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1996;313(7048):41-2. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Correlation, regression, and repeated data. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1994;308(6933):896. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement error proportional to the meanBMJ. 1996;313(JuLY):1996-1996.[PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement errorBMJ. 1996;313(September):1996-1996.[PDF]
  • Bland J, Altman D. Statistics notes: some examples of regression towards the meanBritish Medical Journal. 1994;309:1994-1994. [PDF]
  • Stigler SM. Regression towards the mean, historically consideredStatistical methods in medical research. 1997;6(2):103-14.  [PDF]

Clinical Trials

  • Airman D. Statistics and ethics in medical research. 3 How large a sampleBritish Medical Journal. 1980;281(November):1336-1338. [PDF]
  • M. J. Campbell, S. A. Julious, D. G. Altman. Estimating sample sizes for binary, ordered categorical, and continuous outcomes in two group comparisons. BMJ. 1995 October 28; 311(7013): 1145–1148. [PDF]
  • Altman D. Randomisation: essential for reducing biasBMJ: British Medical Journal. 1991;(June):1481-1482. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Treatment allocation in controlled trials: why randomise? BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1999;318(7192):1209. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. How to randomise. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1999;319(7211):703-4. [PDF]
  • Bland JM, Altman DG. MatchingBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1994;309(6962):1128. [PDF].
  • Day S, Altman D. Statistics notes: blinding in clinical trials and other studies. British Medical Journal. 2000;321(August):2000-2000. [PDF]
  • Altman DG, Schulz KF. Concealing treatment allocation in randomised trialsBMJ. 2001;323(August):446-447. [PDF].
  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Treatment allocation by minimisationBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2005;330(7495):843. [PDF]

Special Topics

  • Altman DG, Bland JM. Missing data. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2007;334(7590):424. [PDF].
  • J. M. Bland, S. M. Kerry. Statistics notes. Trials randomised in clusters. BMJ. 1997 September 6; 315(7108): 600. [PDF]
  • S. M. Kerry, J. M. Bland. Analysis of a trial randomised in clusters. BMJ. 1998 January 3; 316(7124): 54.[PDF]
  • S. M. Kerry, J. M. Bland. Sample size in cluster randomisation. BMJ. 1998 February 14; 316(7130): 549. [PDF]
  • Sally M Kerry, J Martin Bland. The intracluster correlation coefficient in cluster randomisation. BMJ. 1998 May 9; 316(7142): 1455–1460.[PDF]
  • Altman DG. Confidence intervals for the number needed to treatBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 1998;317(7168):1309-12. [PDF]
  • Douglas G Altman, Per Kragh Andersen. Calculating the number needed to treat for trials where the outcome is time to an event. BMJ. 1999 December 4; 319(7223): 1492–1495.[PDF]
  • Altman DG. Systematic reviews of evaluations of prognostic variablesBMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2001;323(7306):224-8. [PDF].
  • Egger M, Smith GD. Meta-Analysis. Potentials and promise.BMJ. 1997;315(7119):1371-4.[PDF]
  • Egger M, Smith GD, Phillips AN. Meta-analysis: principles and procedures.BMJ. 1997;315(7121):1533-7.[PDF]
  • Davey Smith G, Egger M, Phillips AN. Meta-analysis. Beyond the grand mean? BMJ. 1997; 315(7122):1610-4.[PDF]
  • Egger M, Smith GD. Bias in location and selection of studies.BMJ. 1998; 316(7124):61-6 [PDF]
  • Egger M, Schneider M, Davey Smith G. Spurious precision? Meta-analysis of observational studies.BMJ. 1998; 316(7125):140-4.[PDF]
  • Davey Smith G, Egger M. Meta-analysis. Unresolved issues and future developments.BMJ. 1998; 316(7126): 221-5.[PDF]
  • Altman DG. Statistics and ethics in medical research. VIII-Improving the quality of statistics in medical journalsBritish medical journal (Clinical research ed.). 1981;282(6257):44-7 [PDF].
  • Altman D. Statistics and ethics in medical research. Misuse of statistics is unethical. British Medical Journal. 1980;281(November):1182-1184. [PDF]